Who should assess for dysgraphia and dyscalculia? Are these considered "related disorders" of dyslexia?
According to Virginia Berninger and Beverly Wolf, in Teaching Students with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia (2009), students with dyslexia sometimes have accompanying problems with handwriting (dysgraphia) and oral and written language disorder (OWL). Students with OWL might have some of the same instructional needs as students with dyslexia, or they may need something entirely different – language instruction and the building up of general knowledge. Dyscalculia, according to Margaret B. Stern in Judith Birsh’s book Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills (2005), involves difficulty with language concepts and associations, memory and attention. Difficulty with numeracy can sometimes accompany reading problems and be associated with them because of the problems with language.